课题:language points in reading (1) 时数(第 周第 课时)英语读书报告Englishreadingreport
How to See a Man Through His Body Language Body language is a method of communication in which you express your feeling or emotion through your body action instead of using verbal language. In terms of broad sense, body language includes body action and facial expression. However, in a narrow sense, it just consists of the meaning that your body and all fours express. It is natural for us to think about many common sorts of body language, when talking about expressing feeling though body action. For example, you clap when you feel excited, stamp feet when angry, rub hands when anxious, lower head when depressed, etc. Body language as a part of the language, and is an important content of the cultural exchange and communication, when language communication obstacles and difficulties, body language can express in the effective time because of the information and content. Of course, in different countries and regions, some body language in the cultural field is interlinked, but because of cultural differences, can also appear many of the same body language shows different meanings. Under the circumstances, we are supposed to fully understand the cultural differences of body language, to avoid cultural differences caused by misunderstanding. Body language can date from thousands year ago. Philosophers and scientists have paid interest in body language for thousands of years and they connected human behaviors with meaning and personality. But those findings are not as sophisticated and detailed as today. Works about body language were very sparse until mid-1900s. According to the relevant records, the first expert at study of body language is ancient Greek, Hippocrates and Aristotle, who explored relationship between human personalities and behaviors, and Romans, notably Cicero discussed how gestures work in feelings and communications. Early studies focused on significance of body language in leadership and communications. Early studies focused on significance of body language in leadership and government. Obviously when we think about body language, we call it nonverbals as social scientists, it is language, so we think about communication. When we think about communication, we think about interactions. So what is your body language communicating to me? What is mine communicating to you? And there is a lot of reasons to believe that is a valid way to look at this. So scientists have spent a lot of time looking at the effects of our body language, or other people's body language, on judgments. And we make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language. And those judgments can predict really meaningful life outcomes like who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date. So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judge others, how they judge us and what the outcomes are. We tend to forget, though, the other audience that's influenced by our nonverbals, and that's ourselves. We are also influenced by our nonverbals, our thoughts and our feelings and our physiology.
Jessica Tracy has studied. She shows that people who are born with sight and people who are congenitally blind do this when they win at a physical competition. So when they cross the finish line and they've won, it doesn't matter if they've never seen anyone do it. They do this with the arms up in the V, the chin is slightly lifted. What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactly the opposite. We close up. We wrap ourselves up. We make ourselves small. We don't want to bump into the person next to us. Handshake is one of the most important manners in people's social life. People from different culture and contrary have different habits or norms on handshake. Some people from southern Europe, Middle and Southern America tend to shake hands wormer and longer, meaning the left hand usually touches the clasped hands, the elbow, or even the lapel of the shake, while this kind of handshake represent provocation or rudeness. Limp handshake is the standard in African countries. Handshake for people with the same gender from Islamic state shows sincerity and trust, however, no handshake between different genders. Additionally, meaning of handshake would be influenced by certain historical events. For example, Soviet would like to shake hands with two hands firmly for expressing friendly since World War 2. Former Soviet President Brezhnev shake hands firmly using two hands with American President Nixon When he visited America. This kind of handshake angered the American because they thought the Soviet throw contempt on them. Nod transmits different information at different cultural background. People form English-speaking countries nod heads for saying yes, shake heads for saying no. The meanings will exchange for people from Middle East. For the Indian, nod or shake head have on regular meanings. People scratch heads when they are trying to remember something or in the troubles. For example, people will scratch heads when they have trouble in making decisions or giving answers, expressing that they need more time to think it over. Beating temple has similar meaning in China and African, implying thinking, however, when an English-speaking man does this, he will be seen crazy or head broken. People from America will shout to others ―heads up, when they feel others are in danger or in trouble, drawing others' attention to situations. Head-up usually means thinking for the Chinese. Smile symbolizes goodness and friendly in most countries, like China, America, etc. People are used to greet to each other with smile to convey friendly. Also people smile to guests to express welcome. People from some conservative Asian countries like Japan are deeply influenced by traditional cultures, unwilling to show feelings easily. Smiling to strangers is excluded by some traditional courtesy, therefore we seldom see conservative Japanese smile to strangers. Interestingly, the Indians usually cry to welcome guests. In addition, smile could be used as apology or sorry in China, otherwise the Western consider this kind of apology as humiliation. Similarly, smile means astonishment, embarrassment, etc. In Africa, that's source of ―black
laughter. Sneer is different from smile at any backgrounds. The Chinese never sneer at anyone because it implies mock or despise. So if we can use and understand body language practised, we are more likely to do better in our positions, friendships, leaderships, and so as other relationships.