PART11中英

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【中英】youcan part-time coach contract 2014-11-12
【中英】youcan part-time coach contract 2014-11-12

PART 11-ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES 第 11 款 电子记录;电子签名Subpart A —General Provisions 分章 A —— 一般规定11.1 Scope. 11.1 适用范围 11.2 Implementation. 11.2 履行 11.3 Definitions. 11.3 定义Subpart B—Electronic Records 分章 B —— 电子记录11.10 Controls for closed systems. 11.10 封闭系统的控制 11.30 Controls for open systems. 11.30 开放系统的控制 11.50 Signature manifestations. 11.50 签名的验证 11.70 Signature/record linking. 11.70 签名/记录连接Subpart C—Electronic Signatures

分章 C —— 电子签名11.100 General requirements. 11.100 一般要求 11.200 Electronic signature components and controls. 11.200 电子签名的构成及控制 11.300 Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11.300 识别代码和密码的控制 Authority: Secs. 201-903 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321-393); sec. 351 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C 262). 引用:《联邦食品、药品和化妆品法案》修订版第 21 章第 201-903 页;《公共健康服 务法案》修订版第 42 章第 351 页。

Subpart A—General Provisions 分章 A —— 一般规定§ 11.1 Scope. 11.1 适用范围(a) The regulations in this part set forth the criteria under which the agency considers electronic records, electronic signatures, and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records to be trustworthy, reliable, and generally equivalent to paper records and handwritten signatures executed on paper. (a) 本条款的规则提供了标准,在此标准之下 FDA 认为电子记录、电子签名,和在电 子记录上的手写签名是可信赖的、可靠的并且通常等同于纸制记录和在纸上的手写签名。

(b)This part applies to records in electronic form that are created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved, or transmitted, under any records requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act, even if such records are not specifically identified in agency regulations. However, this part does not apply to paper records that are, or have been, transmitted by electronic means.

(b) 本条款适用于在 FDA 规则中阐明的,在任何记录的要求下,以电子表格形式建立、 修改、维护、归档、检索或传送的记录。

本条款同样适用于在《联邦食品、药品和化妆品 法案》和《公众健康服务法案》要求下的呈送给 FDA 的电子记录,即使该记录没有在 FDA 规则下被明确识别。

然而,本条款不适用于现在和已经以电子的方式传送的纸制记录。

(c)Where electronic signatures and their requirements of this part, the agency will consider the electronic signatures to be equivalent to full handwritten signatures, initials, and other general signings as required by agency regulations, unless specifically excepted by regulation(s) effective on or after August 20, 1997. (c) 一旦电子签名和与它相关的电子记录符合本条款的要求,FDA 将会认为电子签名完 全等同于手写签名、缩写签名、和其他的 FDA 规则所求的一般签名。

除非是被 1997 年 8 月 20 日起(包括该日)生效后的规则明确地排除在外的电子签名。

(d)Electronic records that meet the requirements of this part may be used in lieu of paper records, in accordance with § 11.2, unless paper records are specifically required. (d) 依照本条款 11.2,除非纸制记录有特殊的要求,符合本条款要求的电子记录可以代 替纸制记录使用。

(e)Computer systems (including hardware and software), controls, and attendant documentation maintained under this part shall be readily available for, and subject to, FDA inspection. (e) 在本条款下维护计算机系统(包括硬件和软件)、控制权、和随附的文件应便于被 FDA 用到、服从于 FDA 的监管。

§ 11.2 Implementation. 11.2 履行(a)For records required to be maintained but not submitted to the agency, persons may use electronic records in lieu of paper records or electronic signatures in lieu of traditional signatures, in whole or in part, provided that the requirements of this part are met. (a) 对于需要维护,但不提交给 FDA 的记录,如果符合本条款的要求,人们可以使用全 部或者部分的电子记录代替纸制记录,或用电子签名代替传统签名。

(b)For records submitted to the agency, persons may use electronic records in lieu of traditional signatures, in whole or in part, provided that: (b) 对于需要提交给 FDA 的电子记录,人们可以使用全部或部分电子记录代替纸制记 录或电子签名代替传统签名(手写签名)假如:

(1)The requirements of this part are met; and (1) 符合条款的要求;和 (2)The document or parts of a document to be submitted have been identified in public docket No.92S-0251 as being the type of submission the agency accepts in electronic form. This docket will identify specifically what types of documents or parts of documents are acceptable for submission in electronic form without paper records and the agency receiving unit(s) (e.g., specific center, office, division, branch) to which such submissions may be made. Documents to agency receiving unit(s) not specified in the public docket will not be considered as official if they are submitted in electronic form; paper forms of such documents will be considered as official and must accompany any electronic records. Persons are expected to consult with the intended agency receiving unit for details on how (e.g., method of transmission, media, file formats, and technical protocols) and whether to proceed with electronic submission. (2) 提交的文件或部分文件,作为 FDA 以电子形式接收的提交物的类型已经被编号为 92S-0251 公共摘要识别出来。

这个摘要将明确地识别出,何种类型文件或部分文件在没 有纸制记录和 FDA 接收单位(举例来说,特定的中心、办公室、部门、分支机构)时的电子 形式提交物是可接受的。

如果没有在公共摘要上明确出来,他们以电子形式提交给 FDA 接收单位的文件将被认为是不正式的;这种文件的书面形式将被认为是正式的但必须伴有 电子记录。

人们期望与未来的 FDA 接收单位就详细的(举例来说,传送的方法、媒体、 文件格式和技术协议)怎样进行和是否进行电子的提交物进行协商。

§ 11.3 Definitions. 11.3 定义(a)The definitions and interpretations of terms contained in section 201 of the act apply to those terms when used in this part. (a) 包含于法案 201 部分中术语的定义和翻译同样适用于那些在本条款中使用到的术语。

(b)The following definitions of terms also apply to this part: (b) 下列术语的定义同样适用于本条款 (1)Act means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (secs. 201-903(21U.S.C. 321-393)). (1)法案是指联邦食品、药品、化妆品法案 (2)Agency means the Food and Drug Administration. (2)机构是指美国食品和药品管理局(FDA)

(3)Biometrics means a method of verifying an individual’s identity based on measurement of the individual’s physical feature(s) or repeatable action(s) where those features and/or actions are both unique to that individual and measureable. (3)生物测定学是指一种基于个人的身体特征及重复行为(这些特征和行为对个人来说 是唯一的和可以测量的)的测量来校验个人身份的方法。

(4)Closed system means an environment in which system access is controlled by person who is responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system. (4)封闭系统是指一种环境,在此环境中系统的登录是被那些对系统上电子记录的内容 负责的人们所控制。

(5)Digital signature means an electronic signature based upon cryptographic methods of originator authentication, computed by using a set of rules and a set of parameters such that the identity of the signer and the integrity of the data can be verified. (5)数字签名是指一种基于发信方鉴别加密的方法,以使签名者的身份使用一套规则和 一系列参数计算和校验数据的完整性能。

(6)Electronic record means any combination of text, graphics, data, audio, pictorial, or other information representation in digital form that is created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved, or distributed by a computer system. (6)电子记录是指任何文本、图表、数据、声音、图示的或其他的以电子形式表现的信 息的混合,它的建立、修改、维护、归档、检索或分发是由计算机系统来完成的。

(7)Electronic signature means a computer data compilation of any symbol or series of symbols executed, adopted, or authorized by an individual to be the legally binding equivalent of the individual ‘s handwritten signature. (7)电子签名是指一种由一个人执行、采用或批准成为与其个人的手写签名具有相同的 法律效力的计算机数据的任意符号或一系列符号的编译。

(8)Handwritten signature means the scripted name or legal mark of an individual handwritten by that individual and executed or adopted with the present intention to authenticate writing in a permanent form. The act of signing with a writing of marking instrument such as a pen or stylus is preserved. The scripted name or legal mark, while conventionally applied to paper, may also be applied to other devices that capture the name or mark. (8)手写签名是指个人的手写笔迹的签名或合法的标志,以永久的形式书写真实意图所 采纳的个人签名或合法标志。

用书写及标志工具(例如一支钢笔或尖笔)的签字行为是被

保存的。

手写签名或合法的标志当约定俗成地适用于书面上,也可以适用于其它的获取名 字及标志的设备。

(9)Open system means an environment in which system access is not controlled by persons who are responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system. (9)开放系统是指一种环境,在此环境中系统的登录不是被那些对系统上电子记录的内 容负责的人所控制。

Subpart B—Electronic Records 子分章 B—电子记录§ 11.10 Controls for closed systems. 11.10 封闭系统的管理Persons who use closed systems to create, modify, maintain, or transmit electronic records shall employ procedures and controls designed to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and , when appropriate, the confidentiality of electronic records, and to ensure that the signer cannot readily repudiate the signed record as not genuine. Such procedures and controls shall include the following: 人们使用封闭系统来建立、修改、维保、或传送电子记录应该使用设计的能够保证记录真 实性、完整性和适当的机密性的程序和控制,以保证签名者不能轻易地否认已经签署的记 录是不真实的。

这样的程序和控制应包括如下: (a)Validation of systems to ensure accuracy, reliability, consistent intended performance, and the ability to discern invalid or altered records. (a) 系统的验证以保证准确、可靠、稳定地预期性能,有能力识别无效的和被改变的记 录。

(b)The ability to generate accurate and complete copies of records in both human readable and electronic form is suitable for inspection, review, and copying by the agency. Persons should contact the agency if there are any questions regarding the ability of the agency to perform such review and copying of the electronic records. (b) 确保产生人们易读的和适合 FDA 检查、回顾、和拷贝的电子形式的准确的、完整 的记录的副本。

当人们怀疑 FDA 执行这样的电子记录回顾和拷贝的能力时,应该联络 FDA。

(c)Protection of records to enable their accurate and ready retrieval throughout the records retention period.

(c) 记录的保护以使记录能够在整个的保存期内是准确的和易于检索的。

(d)Limiting system access to authorized individuals. (d) 通过授权个人用户以限制系统的登录。

(e)Use of secure, computer-generated, time-stamped audit trails to independently record the date and time of operator entries and actions that create, modify, or delete electronic records. Record changes shall not obscure previously recorded information. Such audit trail documentation shall be retained for a period at least as long as that required for the subject electronic records and shall be available for agency review and copying. (e) 使用安全的、计算机产生的、时间印记的审核跟踪以便独立地记录操作者登录和建 立、修改、或删除电子记录的行为的日期和时间。

记录的改变不能使先前的记录信息被覆 盖。

这样的审核跟踪文档将至少被保留这样一段时间,这取决于从属于的电子记录在 FDA 复查和拷贝时保证是可得到的。

(f)Use of operational system checks to enforce permitted sequencing of steps and events, as appropriate. (f) 必要时,使用操作系统检查以加强进程和事件的排序。

(g)Use of authority checks to ensure that only authorized individuals can use the system, electronically sign a record, access the operation or computer system input or output device, alter a record, or perform the operation at hand. (g) 使用验证检查以保证只有被授权用户才可以使用系统,以电子方式签署记录,使用 操作或计算机系统的输入输出设备,改变记录或手工执行操作。

(h)Use of device (e.g., terminal) checks to determine, as appropriate, the validity of the source of data input or operational instruction. (h) 必要时使用设备(举例来说,终端)检查以确定数据输入来源或操作指导的有效性。

(i)Determination that persons who develop, maintain, or use electronic record/electronic signature systems have the education, training, and experience to perform their assigned tasks. (i) 确定开发、维护或使用电子记录/电子签名系统的人员应具备与他们被指派执行的任 务相应的教育、培训和经验。

(j)The establishment of, and adherence to, written policies that hold individuals accountable and responsible for actions signatures, in order to deter record and signature falsification. (j) 为了阻止记录和签名的伪造,确立与坚持源自个人电子签名行为的责任与职责的书 面策略。

(k)Use of appropriate controls over systems documentation including: (k) 在系统文件方面运用适当的控制包括: (1)Adequate controls over the distribution of, access to, and use of documentation for system operation and maintenance. (1) 在分发的、有权使用、系统运转和维护方面使用的文件有足够的控制。

(2)Revision and change control procedures to maintain an audit trail that documents timesequenced development and modification of systems documentation. (2) 修订和改变控制程序以保持一个以时间顺序产生和修改的系统文件的审核跟踪。

§ 11.30 Controls for open systems. 11.30 开放系统的管理Persons who use open systems to create, modify, maintain, or transmit electronic records shall employ procedures and controls designed to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and, as appropriate, the confidentiality of electronic records from the point of their creation to the point of their receipt. Such procedures and controls shall include those indentified in § 11.10, as appropriate, and additional measures such as document encryption and use of appropriate digital signature standards to ensure, as necessary under the circumstances, record authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality. 人们使用开放系统来建立、修改、保持、或传送电子记录将使用设计程序和控制以保证电 子记录从他们的创建处到他们的接收处的真实性、完整性和机密性。

这种程序和控制应包 括那些在 11.10 中被识别的,必要时附加的测量例如文档的加密术和运用适当的数字签名 标准以保证,在此环境下,记录必要的正确性、完整性和机密性。

§ 11.50 Signature manifestations. 11.50 签名的显示(a)Signed electronic records shall contain information associated with the signing that clearly indicates all of the following: (a) 签署电子记录应包含能清晰显示如下所有与签名相关的信息: (1)The printed name of the signer; (1) 用印刷体书写出签名者的名字

(2)The date and time when the signature was executed; and (2) 签名生效的日期和时间;和 (3)The meaning (such as review, approval, responsibility, or authorship) associated with the signature. (3)和签名相关的含意(例如回顾、批准、职责、或原创作者) (b)The items identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) of this section shall be subject to the same controls as for electronic records and shall be included as part of any human readable form of the electronic record (such as electronic display or printout). (b)该条款已识别出在这一部分(a)(1),(a)(2),and(a)(3)节应服从于和电子记录同样的控制 并且应该包括人们易读的电子记录的形式(例如电子显示或打印输出)§ 11.70 Signature/record linking. 11.70 签名/记录连接Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records shall be linked to their respective electronic records to ensure that the signatures cannot be excised, copied, or otherwise transferred to falsify an electronic record by ordinary means. 在电子记录上签署的电子签名和手写签名应该链接到它们各自的电子记录以保证电子 签名不能够被删除、拷贝或者其他方面的转移以至于使用普通手段伪造一个电子记录。

Subpart C—Electronic Signatures 分章 C 电子签名§ 11.100 General requirements. 11.100 一般要求(a)Each electronic signature shall be unique to one individual and shall not be reused by, or reassigned to, anyone else. (a) 每一个电子签名应是唯一对应单独一个人的并且不能被再使用、或再分配给其他任 何人。

(b)Before an organization establishes, assigns, certifies, or otherwise sanctions an individual’s electronic signature, or any element of such electronic signature, the organization shall verify the identity of the individual. (b) 在一个组织建立、分配、证明,或批准一个人的电子签名或其他的任何这样的电子 签名的要素前,组织将校验个人的身份。

(c)Persons using electronic signatures shall, prior to or at the time of such use, certify to the agency that the electronic signatures in their system, used on or after August 20, 1997, are intended to be the legally binding equivalent of traditional handwritten signatures. (c) 签名者使用电子签名前或使用时应向 FDA 证明,从 1997 年 8 月 20 日起及以后在 他们系统上的电子签名,与传统的手写签名有同等的法律效力。

(1)The certification shall be submitted in paper form and signed with a traditional handwritten signature, to the Office of Regional Operations (HFC-100), 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. (1) 证明要以书面形式提交到“地方运转办公室”并采用传统的手写签名, (2)Persons using electronic signatures shall, upon agency request, provide additional certification or testimony that a specific electronic signature is the legally binding equivalent of the signer’s handwritten signature. (2) 应 FDA 要求,人们在使用电子签名时应提供一份明确电子签名与签字者手写签 名具有同等的法律效力的附加的证明书或证据。

§ 11.200 Electronic signature components and controls. 11.200 电子签名的成分及管理(a)Electronic signatures that are not based upon biometrics shall: (a) 不依据生物测定学的电子签名应该: (1)Employ at least two distinct identification components such as an identification code and password. (1) 使用至少二种截然不同的证明成分,例如识别码和密码。

(i)When an individual executes a series of signings during a single, continuous period of controlled system access, the first signing shall be executed using at least one electronic signature component that is only executable by, and designed to be used only by, the individual.

(i) 当一个人在一个独立的持续受控的系统登录期间内签署了一系列的签名,签署的 第一个签名将使用所有的电子签名成分。

后续签署的签名应使用至少一种的电子签名的成 分。

该成分只能由个人签署,并且设计只能由个人来使用。

(ii)When an individual executes one or more signings not performed during a single, continuous period of controlled system access, each signing shall be executed using all of the electronic signature components. (ii) 当一个人不在一个独立的持续受控的系统登录期间内签署一个或多个签名时,每 一个被他签署的签名应使用所有的电子签名成分。

(2)Be used only by their genuine owners; and (2) 仅供他们真正的所有者使用; (3)Be administered and executed to ensure that attempted use of an individual’s electronic signature by anyone other than its genuine owner requires collaboration of two or more individuals. (3) 管理和签署以确保任何除其真正所有者外的其他人尝试使用该电子签名时需要二 个或更多的人的协作。

(b)Electronic signatures based upon biometrics shall be designed to ensure that they cannot be used by anyone other than their genuine owners. (b)依据生物测定学的电子签名应被设计成能确保他们不能被真正所有者之外的其他 人使用。

§ 11.300 Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11.300 识别代码和密码的管理Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords shall employ controls to ensure their security and integrity. Such controls shall include: 人们使用基于利用识别码和密码混合的电子签名应加强管理以保证他们的安全和完整,这 种管理应包括: (a)Maintaining the uniqueness of each combined identification code and password, such that no two individuals have the same combination of identification code and password. (a) 保持每一个识别码和密码结合的唯一性,也就是不会有二个人有相同的识别码和密 码。

(b)Ensuring the identification code and password issuances are periodically checked, recalled, or revised (e.g., to cover such events as password aging). (b) 保证识别码和密码发布能定期被检查、收回或是修订(举例来说,覆盖象密码过期 这样的事件)(c)Following loss management procedures to electronically deauthorize lost, stolen, missing, or otherwise potentially compromised tokens, cards, and other devices that bear or generate identification code or password information, and to issue temporary or permanent replacements using suitable, rigorous controls. (c) 按照损失管理过程对丢失、被盗、找不到或有损伤可能的记号、卡片及其他装置 (生成或创建识别码或口令信息的装置)进行电子失效,并应用适当、严格的控制发行临 时或永久的代用品。

(d)Use of transaction safeguards to prevent unauthorized use of passwords and/or identification codes, and to detect and report in an immediate and urgent manner any attempts at their unauthorized use to the system security unit, and, as appropriate, to organizational management. (d) 使用安全装置以防止未被授权的密码或识别码的使用,采取立即和紧急的措施检测 并报告任何试图未经授权使用安全系统的单位,以及适当的组织管理。

(e)Initial and periodic testing of devices, such as tokens or cards, that bear or generate identification code or password information to ensure that they function properly and have not been altered in an unauthorized manner. (e) 最初的和定期的设备测试,例如记号或卡片,包含或产生识别代码或密码信息,以 保证他们行使适当的职责和改变未被授权的行为。

 
 

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